Today we reached a major milestone: 100 million repositories now live on GitHub. Powering this number is an incredible community. Together, you’re 31 million developers from nearly every country and territory in the world, collaborating across 1.1 billion contributions.
Repositories are where you store code, but they represent much more: ideas, experiments, curiosity, and moments of inspiration. To celebrate, let’s take a look at a few trends and achievements, a core sample of what’s possible when we work together by the millions.
To put this milestone into perspective, we totaled only about 33,000 repositories in 2008. Today, we’re seeing an average of 1.6 repositories created every second. In fact, nearly one third of all repositories were created in the last year alone—all thanks to the developers who choose to host, build, and share their work on GitHub.
Over the last 10 years, it’s been a pleasure to watch impactful projects build and grow on GitHub. Rails moved to Git and GitHub while the platform was still in private beta, and Node.js launched on GitHub in 2009. Since then, we’ve also had the opportunity to host Swift, .NET, and Python. Supported by thousands of contributors, these projects are raising the bar for how developer tools evolve and engage with their communities.
Just this year, we’ve seen countless projects take off, started by individuals and larger teams alike. Projects like Definitely Typed, Godot, Kubernetes, PyTorch, and more climbed our lists of top and fastest growing projects.
Projects on this year’s lists have a theme: they make it easier to build software, whether through code editing, automation, containerization, or documentation.
This year, the open source repositories you’ve created span thousands of topics, but these are the ones you contributed to the most:
GitHub started with a small group of developers looking to solve a specific problem—now it’s home to a global open source community. And we’re seeing the proportion of open source contributors outside the U.S. grow every year.
As a continent, more repositories are coming from Asia than anywhere else in the world. More specifically, repository creation has picked up across Central Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. While there’s an increase in repositories from developed countries, we’re seeing the same trend in emerging countries as new tech communities grow and new technologies becoming more accessible.
Developers in Egypt, in particular, created twice as many public and private repositories this year. And in Nigeria, a growing developer community created 1.7x more open source repositories in 2018 than in 2017. To see why we think Nigeria has a tech community to watch, read our latest post on the region.
After 10 years and 100 million repositories, we’re only just getting started. Thanks to our users, we’re building something bigger than any single repository or project—a community that’s pushing software forward in tangible ways. So thank you for building with us now and in the years to come. We can’t wait to see what you build together in the next 100 million.
Interested in seeing more insights into the GitHub community? Check out this year’s State of the Octoverse report.
Today, we’re excited to announce that GitHub has joined 40 other software companies in supporting the GPL Cooperation Commitment. Our hope is that this change will improve fairness and certainty for users of key projects that the developer ecosystem relies on, including Git and the Linux kernel. More broadly, the GPL Cooperation Commitment provides an example of evolving software regulation to better align with social goals, which is urgently needed as developers and policymakers grapple with the opportunities and risks of the software revolution.
Regulations are put in place in order to achieve social goals—like reducing pollution or protecting consumers—but those goals aren’t automatically achieved. An “effective” regulation must direct behavior that will actually further intended goals and not cause too much unintended collateral damage.
But that’s not all: an effective regulation would also have an enforcement mechanism that encourages compliance rather than creates an opportunity to shake businesses down. Under effective regulation, the most severe penalties for non-compliance, like shutting down a line of business, would be reserved for repeat and intentional violators. Less serious failures to comply, or accidental non-compliance, may only result in warnings—if the violation is promptly corrected.
The GNU General Public License (GPL) is a tool for a private regulator (copyright holder) to achieve a social goal: under the license, anyone who receives a covered program has the freedom to run, modify, and share that program. (In contrast, a license like MIT does not regulate what freedoms downstream recipients must be offered. Whether to regulate in this manner or not is up to the developer of a program.)
However, if the developer does want to regulate, version 2 of the GPL (GPLv2) has one bug from the perspective of an effective regulator: non-compliance results in termination of the license, with no provision for reinstatement—making the license marginally more useful to copyright “trolls” who want to force companies to pay rather than come into compliance.
In contrast, version 3 of the GPL (GPLv3) fixed this bug by introducing a “cure provision” under which a violator can usually have their license reinstated—if the violation is promptly corrected. On choosealicense.com, we recommend GPLv3 when developers want to use a regulatory license.
Still, GPLv2 has served the Linux kernel, Git, and other developer communities well since 1991, many of which are unlikely to ever switch to GPLv3, as this would require agreement from all copyright holders, and not everyone agrees with all of GPLv3’s changes. But GPLv3’s cure provision is uncontroversial: could it be backported to GPLv2 licensed projects? In a sense yes, to the extent GPLv2 copyright holders agree.
The GPL Cooperation Commitment is a way for a copyright holder to agree to extend GPLv3’s cure provision to all GPLv2 (also LGPLv2 and LGPLv2.1, which have the same bug) licenses offered, giving violators a fair chance to come into compliance and have their licenses reinstated.
And importantly, the GPL Cooperation Commitment is an example of making regulation more effective in advancing a social good, like we discussed above. It also incorporates one of several principles (the others do not relate directly to license terms) for enforcing compliance with the GPL and other copyleft licenses as effective private regulation.
We’re happy to agree to the GPL Cooperation Commitment because it aligns with GitHub’s core values. Everything we build and support is grounded in empowering the people–and the community–behind the technology. We know GPLv2 will likely remain an important private software regulation for decades to come. It’s important to ensure that GPLv2 licensees have the ability to fairly correct license violations, and to support effective regulation that improves open source licensing for everyone. We also want to encourage both private and public policymakers to take similar care for effectiveness when considering regulation that will shape the future of software.
A new version of Git LFS, the open source Git extension for versioning large files, is now available. Git LFS v2.6.0 comes with a more robust authentication mechanism, new options to
git lfs checkout, a handful of bug fixes, new platforms, and more.
Git LFS can make two types of HTTP(s) requests: API requests (which allow the client to retrieve any metadata it might need), and storage requests (which allow the client to upload or download data to external storage).
Previously, Git LFS would determine how it should authenticate LFS API requests, then use the same method to authenticate transfer requests. However, API requests and transfer requests generally go to different places and aren’t guaranteed to require the same authentication method.
Git LFS now treats those requests as requiring different authentication and will determine the correct mode for each.
git lfs checkoutoptions
Git is designed to handle merge conflicts as best it can without the need for human intervention, but often it’s built-in merge facilities do not resolve conflicts correctly for large files. When that’s the case, it can be useful to compare the contents of both sides of the conflict by hand.
git lfs checkout now provides convenient options for doing just that: you can ask it to resolve “our” side of a merge, “their” side, or the merge base. Here’s an example:
$ git lfs checkout --ours --to=conflict.psd.ours -- conflict.psd $ git lfs checkout --theirs --to=conflict.psd.theirs -- conflict.psd $ git lfs checkout --base --to=conflict.psd.base -- conflict.psd $ ls -la -rw-r--r--@ 1 user group 16789 Oct 22 18:59 conflict.psd.base -rw-r--r--@ 1 user group 19810 Oct 22 18:59 conflict.psd.ours -rw-r--r--@ 1 user group 18303 Oct 22 18:59 conflict.psd.theirs
From here, you can open each side of the conflict and resolve the differences however you see fit.
You’ll see a handful of other new features and bug fixes in v2.6.0 like new release targets including arm64, enhanced support for more configuration options from Git, and more.
For instructions on configuring Git LFS, read the documentation.
Two weeks ago we released suggested changes, a feature that allows you to suggest changes to code in a pull request. Once changes are suggested, the author or assignees can accept (and commit) suggestions with the click of a button.
Since its release, more than 10 percent of all reviewers suggested at least one change, totaling over 100,000 suggestions—and nearly four percent of all review comments created included a suggestion. Based on these early numbers, we see you’re quick to adopt suggested changes and make them a natural part of your code review workflow.
Between the number of suggestions created and the feedback we received from over 2,500 people who have used the feature, you’ve helped us understand what we can improve moving forward.
By far the most frequent requests were:
We want to make suggested changes the best feature it can possibly be. Your feedback is valuable and will inform our next steps. Until then, we encourage you to try out suggested changes and tell us what you think.
Today we are celebrating the first anniversary of the GitHub Community Forum. One year ago today, we began with just three discussion boards, a single GitHub Original Series article, and a burning desire to provide a new space for connecting, collaborating, and learning. Though our discussion boards and articles have evolved, we’re just as excited to bring you even more valuable content over the next year as we were when we initially started the Community Forum.
Since October 31, 2017, there have been:
We’re working hard to make the Community Forum even better. Over the next year, we will be adding new features and experiences. Here are a few new and exciting improvements you can look forward to in 2019…
We want to thank you for your contributions, and hope you continue to share with the community.
If you haven’t joined the GitHub Community Forum, it’s never too late! Visit the Community Forum and log in with your github.com account to start sharing your experiences with the community.
Additionally, if you have any GitHub Community Forum ideas or requests, visit our one year celebration post and leave a comment. This platform can’t exist without all of you, and we want to hear how to make it even better for you to connect and learn.
Here’s to another year!